The Industrial Relations Commissions in New South Wales and Queensland have established undervaluation as the threshold for making an equal remuneration claim. Data from the Average Weekly Earnings Survey show that between 1990 and 2009, the gender wage gap remained within a narrow range of between 15 and 17 per cent. Watson, Ian, ‘Decomposing the Gender Pay Gap in the Australian Managerial Labour Market’ (2010) 13 Australian Journal of Labour Economics 49. Anti-discrimination laws have had a limited impact on GPE, since the liberal legal system have not been designed to change social structures, but merely to/ allows women to participate in existing arenas. National time use studies show that the number of unpaid hours that men and women devote has not changed notably; with women being found to have contributed 65 percent and 64 percent of household activities in 1992 and 1997 respectively. The gender wage gap is a prominent issue which is fought for in feminism today. The Acts attempts to achieve equality through the prohibition of two defined forms of discrimination – direct discrimination (DD) is confined to facilitating equality of opportunity, whilst indirect discrimination (IDD) allows some movement towards equality in substance by targeting a restricted range of systemic unfair treatment. (Sage reference) I will first, Problem: As far as equality in the social arena, liberal feminists are not generally concerned with traditional gender stereotypes and sexism within present society (Freidman et al., 20111, p. 6). Since the 1970s, considerable progress has been achieved for women’s rights. The report showcases a sample of the key findings from that year's reporting period and includes information on gender segregation, gender pay gaps, women in leadership and much more. One significant discrimination problem the world population is battling, takes… Course Help Online: A custom essay writing service that sells original assignment help services to students. Rubery, Jill, ‘Performance- Related Pay and the Prospects for Gender Pay Equity’ (1995) 32 Journal of Management Studies 637 Smith, Belinda, ‘Not The Baby And The Bathwater: Regulatory Reform For Equality Laws To Address Work-Family Conflict’(2006) 28 Sydney Law Review 689. Women are more likely to enroll in college than men. Wooden, Mark, ‘Gender Pay Equity and Comparable Worth in Australia: A Reassessment’ (1999) 32 The Australian Economic Review 157. Gaze, Beth, ‘The Sex Discrimination Act After Twenty Years: Achievements, Disappointments, Disillusionment and Alternatives’ (2004) 27 UNSW Law Journal 914. Women are underrepresented in top management and a glass-ceiling phenomenon operates which block the climb from middle to senior management. Undervaluation can be proven by showing that current rates of pay are inconsistent with the tribunal’s assessments of work value.